Verses 1ff Anadiplosis—same sentence ending and beginning.
Reduplicatio—a reduplicate.
Genesis 1:1,2—The earth...the earth.
Tohoo—desolate—not created so. Isaiah 45:18.
Ellipsis —leaving in—gap left in.
Genesis 1:2—darkness was; and 1:30—I have given, repeated from preceding clause in 1:29.
Pleonasm—more words used than necessary: by way of amplification.
Genesis 1:2—faces—plural on account of various features. Check Genesis 11:8.
Anthropatheia: condescension—describing human passion, actions, etc. to God.
Genesis 1:2—brood or incubate and Genesis 1:4,10,12,18,21,25—saw. Synecdoche—transfer a part for
whole or vice versa.
Genesis 1:5,8,13,19,23,31—evening and morning.
Antimereia—exchange of one part of a speech for another adjective for a noun—
Genesis 1:9,10—lord.
Polyptoton—many inflections—different arrangement of same word. Verbs with cognate noun—a
superlative degree in verbs declaring greatness of the action—Genesis 1:11, "Yielding seed," seeding seed.
Prolepsis—anticipation—speaks of future as by present. Genesis 1:24—Eve came really in 2:20-23.
Hendiadys—two words used but one meant. Genesis 1:26—image; likeness.
Genesis 2:9—tree of knowledge—good and evil.
Verse 7 Fig leaf apron. The mother of woman who brought forth child makes silver (if poor) or gold
plate (silver plate with gold plate with gold cord around edge) and presents it to granddaughter when a
girl is born. Fig leaf is engraved on plate and hung in front of girl. Remembrance of what happened to
first people because of what woman did. Girl wears it for first six months. Boys do not wear it.
Verses 14 and 15 "Set a mark upon Cain." The mark is placed upon the forehead (Ezekiel 16:12).
Hindus have a red mark on their forehead which has different meanings. Significance: 1) To signify the
Passover blood; and 2) To show they are saved people.
Meaning: 1) It means that the person is a Hindu and just bathed and said prayers (Ezekiel 16:12 and
Revelation 13:16); 2) It means the person is marked by God with the protection of God; and 3) Married
girls put a red mark, unmarried girl uses a black mark.
Verse 17: Where did Cain find his wife? Two answers: 1) I do not know whom he married but wait
until I go to heaven and ask Cain and I will let you know (this is a joke); and 2) After Cain murdered
Abel, Adam had several sons and daughters and Cain married one of his sisters.
Verse 16: When Cain went to Nod, it was an uninhabited land.
Verse 20 Abraham's wife Sarah was his sister.
Verses 17 and 18 There is nothing new under the sun—talks about flying saucers. God hangs the earth
on nothing. All things are possible with our God.
Starts teaching of burning lamp. Burning lamp—covenants not only made by eating salt and eating
bread, but also in the presence of a burning lamp. When a marriage takes place in the East, the bride and
bridegroom walk around a burning lamp. They walk around it to confirm their oaths one to another. The
lamp is a witness. Covenants are made in the presence of a burning lamp in the East. Burning lamp
stands for presence of God. They walk around it three times in the covenant. Spiritual application:
Today—Jesus said "yeah, yeah." Keep your word no matter what you have to pay for it, what you might pay for it.
We have all the resources of heaven and earth since we are a new creation—it's Christ in us —
therefore, he is a witness in us. And we live and move being in him. Being conscious of this fact, we
don't need to make covenants in presence of fire.
Verses 1ff "Came they under the shadow of my roof." Verse 8: In East, will protect those guests at all
costs while they are under their roofs. In this instance, Lot offered his own daughters to the men from
town before he would give up his guests.
Verses 1 and 2 "Turn into your servant's house." "Street." Street should be village common. Suppose
we are in an oriental town while traveling. About 6:00 it gets suddenly dark in the East and it becomes
too dark to travel. In each town or village there is a village commonplace, called the "street" in the Bible.
It should not be called "the street," but rather the village common. Anyone can go and stay there. There
are a few trees, a few seats, shelter for the traveler. Orientals usually do not eat alone, they must have a
guest who is not a family member. Before they start eating they will go out to the village common and
see it there is someone there to eat with them. They will say, "If you find favor with thy servant, if you
count me worthy, will you please come and abide under my roof." If a guest comes to an Eastern home,
they consider it that God has come.
See Job 31:32.
Verses 1-8 Verse 1: "Two angels"—should be two messengers.
Verse 2: A person could live in the East without working, simply by going from house to house and
accepting the hospitality of the people. "My Lord" strangers are addressed as Lord.
"Street" — in every village there is a park in the center of town marked out for the traveling stranger.
This is the village common. Job 31:17,32.
Verse 3: "Pressed upon them." Persuaded them, constrained them. The Easterners go out of their
way to urge people to come to their home because any man or woman standing on two legs is an angel,
God dwells in them. If they serve this person, they are serving God. (Matthew 10:42.)
"Unleavened bread." (Matthew 16:6, Mark 8:15; leaven of the Pharisees) leaven is corruption. The
leaven of the East is not yeast. The Eastern bread is flat. The leaven is not put in to raise it.
(Luke 11:5, "lend me three loaves"—loaves should be either chapptti or rotti—tortilla.)
They use wheat flour to make a thin dough and put it in a pot in the sun. Put a white linen on the
mouth of the pot. It remains in the sun all day until evening. At evening, it is brought into the kitchen.
This is done for eleven days. The leaven adds to the taste, but does not make it rise. Therefore, offer
unleavened bread in offering to God, so it doesn't have things added by man.
(Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21—"hid in three measures of meal.")
Verse 8: The host will protect the guest with his life, even from public with warrant. When Christ
comes into us we should put him first, dedicate our life to him.
Came they under the shadow of my roof. In East will protect those guests at all costs while they are
under their roofs. In this instance, Lot offered his own daughters to men from town before he would give
up his guests.
Verse 2 Invitation and refusal, hospitality. Here is the invitation and a refusal.
Verse 2b "...abide in the street all night." In every village—a village common, which is a place for
travelers or for those who have no home. There are trees, a well, few seats made of brick. Travelers bring
own food and bed with no fear of theft or harm to themselves or their animals. What the Bible calls
street. Look for guests there.
High cast Hindu will not eat food unless give to guests first and seek ye first the kingdom of God—
before you eat, give to other first. Go to village common and say, "Sir, if I find favor, have mercy and
come and eat with me." Some come, and some don't. Wash feet and sprinkle. After the stranger eats,
then the family eats. Guest might be an angel unawares. If you don't love those who you see, how can
you love God whom you haven't seen. Do the same with your income, give to God first. In East, think
that God is in everyone, so what you do to them you do to God.
When you come for dinner and spend the night, the next day they ask you for breakfast. Lunch and
beg you for dinner. Some people live off other's hospitality. Just look like a well-dressed traveler and go
to village and someone will ask you to come and share dinner with them.
Verse 8 As a guest in the East, nobody can touch you as long as you are in that home. If someone
attempts to get you, the host will lay down his life for you, his guests. Genesis 19:9.
"Two daughters of Lot." This verse describes the protection given to a guest while he is in the home
of an Eastern person. We have the protection of God.
"Unto these men do nothing...." Lot protecting the two guests in his house. If you break a promise
made under the covenant of salt, the punishment is death. Judas could not hide behind the weakness of
the flesh as we all do by saying, "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak, so, forgive me Lord." Judas
knew if he didn't kill himself, someone else would because he had broken the salt covenant.
Verse 26 Question: Significance of Lot's wife being turned into a pillar of salt. If have been salted and
do not adhere to covenant, become a monument of disobedience. Sometimes we are monuments of
disobedience: despair, defeat, frustration. Breakers of covenant of salt were usually killed, but God had
promised Abraham that Lot and his wife would be saved.
From behind him. Pillar of salt. God told Lot and family not to look back while fleeing from Sodom
and Gomorrah or they would turn to salt. Eastern women walk behind their men in showing their
submissiveness and obedience to the husband who is the head of the family. Wives never eat at the table
with the husband. They feed the husband first and when he has finished eating, he leaves stuff on his
plate so his wife can eat. She is, this way, a partaker of the blessings of the husband. (Just as we are of
the blessings of Jesus Christ.) She can eat more afterwards, but first eats of what husband leaves. The
only time they walk side by side is during the marriage ceremony while waling hand in hand under the
canopy for the marriage feast. In the East, you never lead by hooking arms! Lot's wife looked back—
broke God's commandment. Why did she turn to salt pillar? Lot and wife were under the salt covenant to
God. That means whatever God says, you must obey without breaking it. It's eternal between you and
God. If you break it, the consequences are death. Death is punishment for those who don't keep it or
who break it. (Judas broke the covenant with Christ, yet betrayed the covenant for 30 pieces of silver. He
killed self out of fear, knowing that death was the consequence of his sin.) She turned to salt pillar so
Eastern people who saw that salt pillar would realize that anyone who breaks the covenant of salt
becomes a pillar of salt. To become warned of it, so to speak. How does this apply? When we break
promises, we do not become pillars of salt. Rather, we become pillars of sorrow, disappointment and
frustration. We have been unfaithful, we reap consequences rather than get punished. Many of our
troubles are a result of walking disobediently. She transgressed the law of God; she did the disobedience.
She refused to do His will. This is walking after the senses, which is the trouble with Christians today.
They reject walking on God's Words — they adhere to the senses.
Verse 16 "Covering of the eyes." Sarah was the step-sister of Abraham. Sanskrit translation—
"behold...eyes" should read "before your eyes." "She was reproved" should read "he made peace with
her." Abimelech was clearing his guilty conscience by giving the money to Sarah's brother.
"A covering of the eyes." From Bishop's Bible—"behold he is...the eyes"—should be "that I may be
absolved before your eyes and those of all the people: thus he made peace with her." Abimelech is trying
to make a compensation for taking Abraham's wife. A custom has only one meaning. Lamsa goes only
by language, but Bishop goes by customs.
Beautiful orientalism on the Eastern transaction of business affairs and hospitality. Explained in pp.
124-127 of Graven in the Rock by Rev. Samuel Kinns, Ph.D., Cassell and Company, Limited, 1891.
Verses 16 and 17 Burial ground. Abraham did not want to accept free ground to bury his dead in as
only paupers and beggars would do that. Therefore, he paid for the ground.
Verse 16 Some of the ladies, the college and ladies of high culture wear a veil that covers their face.
They see, but others can't see them. Another one is where the forehead can't be seen, but they can see the
nose and the face. And a very thick veil is worn when they get married. Some after the marriage put the
very thick veil on, so that they can't see anything at all. Rebecca seems to have been young and not
married, so she wasn't as particular as those that are married. There are also young girls below 14 that
don't wear anything at all. Some people in among the Arabs have a net through which you can see. They
just wear it because it is against the religion not to.
Verses 17-21 Drinking at the well. This is the servant of Abraham looking for a bride for Isaac. Verse
18: "let down her pitcher," because they carried them upon their heads. "Drink my lord," even though
the servant was a complete stranger. It is a respectable way of greeting. In the East, if anybody asks for
water, he must not be refused. If refused, it is considered a very bad thing. You may not speak to a
woman in the East unless you have a purpose; asking for water. Giving water is a great privilege and a
mighty blessing. Any Easterner would run to get the water. It's their courtesy, social etiquette. Every
service rendered to mankind is considered to have a corresponding reward from God and God will bless
you for your social hospitality and sociability for cheerfully giving. They also believe God is in every
human, so if they are nice to people then God is the one they are treating.
Verses 32-46 Signs. This was a matter of choosing a wife for Isaac. Verse 32: Washed men's feet also
who were with master. Eastern master puts his men equal with him.
Verse 33: Not eat until spoken—anything said before a meal is established. It is binding because of
the salt covenant taken in eating.
The faithful servant trusted God to show him the woman to marry Isaac. We should trust God
completely to give us answers we need to know.
Verse 60 Mother of thousands of millions, blessings. Children possess the gate.
This is a blessing at the time of marriage. It is a figure of speech. "May you have 100 sons; may you
have horses and chariots; may you walk on gold." "May your children possess the gate of those which
hate them" means there will be no enemies to you in your life. All blessings are positive. When they
throw rice at a wedding, it means, "May you have enough to eat." (Tying horseshoes together is a pagan
Verses 64 and 65 She took a veil. Only the husband can unveil the wife. Rebecca put on the veil
because she had been traveling with women where she didn't need it. When she came to her future
husband, she put on the veil because he was not to look on her until the time of the wedding. (If you rob
a girl with a veil on, you are robbing God.)
Verse 18 See II Kings 17:10.
Verses 18 and 19 Pillar of Jacob. Jacob took a stone for a pillow. His pillow became a pillar. (He, of
course, did put some clothing on top of the stone.) Why did he put oil on it? The oil consecrated the
stone. Stone was a memorial of what happened the night before (when God renamed him Israel). He did
not worship the stone, as pagans do their stones. Some pagans believe the memorial stone is God. They
really represent a person who has done something the people felt was worth remembering.
Verse 16 See Judges 11:30-40.
Verse 14 Mandrake. The mandrake is like a carrot. It is a root vegetable from which they believe to get
vitamins, etc. to produce children. Jacob married Rachel and Leah. Leah had children and Jacob did not
love her. Rachel did not have children which is why she said, "Give me of thy son's mandrakes." Reuben
had gone to the harvest and found mandrakes. He was the firstborn of Leah, and Rachel said to him the
above because she had no children.
Verses 14-16 Mandrakes. Mandrakes are like carrots. Women with no children who eat this after it is
blessed by the priest, will then conceive. Eastern values are very different from Western values. The use
of mandrakes here is understood in the context of the story about Rachel and Leah.
Mandrake—like carrot, looks like one.
Women who have no children are supposed to eat these and then they'll have babies. Jacob and
Rachel—Rachel said to Leah, "Give me thy son's mandrakes."
Verse 19 In the Eastern countries and in their homes—especially religious people, have images made of
their forefathers (grandfathers and great, great grandfathers, and goes back as far as 100 to 150 years).
The images look like their forefathers and each image has their name written on it. Some of the homes
have 10 to 15 images in them.
The Eastern people believe that when a man is dead and gone, they still are living somewhere and if
you call upon the image of that person, they will answer you. They say that God speaks through the
image. If some article is stolen or lost, they call upon the image to tell them where they can find the lost
article. Rachel had stolen the images of her father and took them with her when she fled with her
husband from her father. She wanted to hide the fact as to what direction they were going so her father
could not find them by asking the images which direction they had fled in.
Verse 53 Swearing by one another. Ancient tradition of East—swear by the temple, by one's own head,
swearing by his father, his son—to confirm what they're saying. To prove to you what they are saying is
true. Jesus told us not to swear at all. Fear—name, swear by the name. We're a new creation—not to
Verses 16 and 17 (John 16:21.) Eastern mother in childbirth has physical and mental agony. Mental
because she worries about sex of child. If it's male, her husband will praise her, she will be looked on like
God blessed her womb. Girls are just a mistake, boys are God's gifts. If a woman gives birth to too many
girls and no sons, she may be divorced. When woman is struggling, the midwife says, "you'll have a nice
boy" to cheer her up.
Verse 17 Have this son also. Childbirth. Rachel had a second child born after Joseph, Benjamin.
(Jacob was her husband.) In the East, women worry during childbirth. First of all, they worry because
mentally they wonder if the baby will be male or female. If a woman does not produce sons, she may get
divorced because she has not been blessed to bear sons. If she does have a son, then the whole village
comes and blesses her, "Blessed be thy womb which has produced a son." All of the women bless her
because she brought forth a son! Son is God's blessing to the Eastern people. The midwife, therefore, is
trained to constantly encourage the mother by saying, "Don't worry, don't worry, you will have a son...."
If the woman is sick when the child is born, they say, "Do you know you have a beautiful son born?"
This helps the mother forget all about her sickness and makes her happy. When a son is born, a banquet
is made. Nothing happens when a daughter is born.
"Thou shalt have this son also."
See also: Jeremiah 20:14,15; Isaiah 9:6; John 16:20,21.
Fear not, thou shalt have this son also. Midwife is trained to say this to build up the expectant
mother. Midwives are trained to say this. For the Eastern, there is physical pain in pregnancy and also
mental pressure due to the disgrace of not having a son. The mental pressure is worse.
Thou shalt have this son also. Midwives in the East are trained to say this over and over again to the
mother to cheer her up during labor. Rachel here had already had her first son, Joseph. The Eastern
women during childbirth have great mental pain along with physical pain. The first suffering is mental
because she is worried as to what the child will be, boy or girl. The second suffering which is much less,
is the physical.
"...Fear not, thou shalt have this son also."
Verse 3 Isaiah 22:22.
"Coat of many colors." White coat with long sleeves. Coat—coat of heir. Brothers not jealous
because it was a coat of many colors. Rather that it was a sign of being heir-to-be.
Coat of many colors—coat of heirship (white, not colored).
Verse 17 "Send thee a kid." The kid is a special gift.
Verse 11 Drunk with wine. Says—drunk with new wine means has finished his meal—not drunk
(Ephesians 5:18). (Not stated.) When Boaz had eaten and drunk and his heart was merry, not intoxicated
means he had finished his meal (Ruth 3:7). (Not stated.)
The Eastern people finish their meal with drinking (as we would by taking a cup of coffee). He took
the grapes in his hand and pressed them in the cup—couldn't be fermented wine. It's a luxury or delicacy
for royalty, etc.
Wine means grape juice—usually not fermented in East. Drink it for thirst and for a blessing. Grape
juice given to couple at marriage, Jesus turned water into wine (grape juice) for the blessing. Fermented
wine is drunk but Pharaoh here is drinking grape juice for the blessing. You can use context to find
which is meant.
Verse 42 There are two kinds of rings: a signet ring, which is delegated power and a gold ring. The
gold ring which you put on a person's hand is symbolic of glory, power and preciousness. Every king has
a signet ring. At the time he signs something, he also puts on the seal from his ring. By giving Joseph the
ring, he delegated power to him. Arrayed him in vestures of fine linen. That is what the kings wear.
Ordinary people wear cotton or wool. A gold chain is exaltation. There are two important pieces of
jewels that bridegrooms give a bride. First the ten pieces of silver which she wears on her head, which is
very important because it must be handed down to the husband's family when he is dead. The rest of the
woman's jewels are hers. Second is a gold chain which he puts around her neck. This is a sign of
exaltation. You not only love your wife, but you exalt her, you honor her.
Verse 42 He was paying a compliment here. Husband gives bride chains and jewels. Gold chain
around neck means he not only loves but honors her. Diamonds on cheeks symbolic of love. Pharaoh put
his own signet ring on Joseph's hand, symbolic of transferring authority. He also put a gold chain around
his neck to signify honor.
"Ring"-signet ring, seal of authority. "Fine linen"—kingly garments. "Gold chain"—honor and
respect are shown to the recipient by the giver in the East, husband gives gold chain to his wife. Even
poor husband will give his wife one.
Ring-signet ring, ring of authority. This ring has initials of father or family and is used to make seals
in wax.
Gold chain signifies honor. Gold necklace given in marriage because you not only love wife, but
honor her, treat her equal as angel of God.
Verse 44 I am Pharaoh. Joseph knew he was Pharaoh. He is affirming a promise—saying he is as good
as his word. This shows the certainty of the promise. That's why God said, "I am." Exodus 3:14.
Verse 16 (Taught but not stated.) Joseph eating at noon with his brothers. They think if you eat in the
morning, that you are not seeking kingdom of God first. The princes stay up pleasure seeking all night
and do not eat until early morning. The princes cannot rule while they are engaged in pleasure seeking.
See also: Ecclesiastes 10:16.
Slay = slay some goats, oxen (not the men) or fatted calf. Big dinner at noon in East.
Verse 32 Caste system here too (talk on Indian caste system—how missionaries didn't unite the country,
freedom from Britain did).
Verse 5 Whereby he divineth. Cup is used to tell fortune by lines and stars engraven in it. Filled with
water to certain level, they put seed in it. If the seed gets to a certain spot on cup with a special star on it,
they can tell future. Cup of divination.
Verse 5 "Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry...." Expresses triumph, "Declaration of triumph"
good topic for this text.
Verse 22 When children come to visit parents for a few weeks each year, parents give them spending
money everyday, feed them, take them out and when they leave, give them clothes. Give clothes to every
guest when they leave, also money to travel with. This is a cultural law. (But he loved Benjamin
Verse 4 Prayer, hand upon the eyes. God was speaking to Jacob in his old age. God always answers
our prayers and desires. When we are sure God heard our prayers, we will not worry about the situation
again. Thank God for the answer every time you think about it while you are waiting for the answer. If
something is bothering you, it is better to spend ten minutes to get rid of the load. God answered Jacob's
prayer. His desire was to see Joseph, his beloved son. When a person dies, the best-loved member of the
family puts his or her hand upon the dead person's eyes to close them.
"Shall put his and upon thine eyes." Always should be done by first-born son. Coat of many colors
should be long white robe which is symbol of heirship to the household. It should go to first-born son.
Jacob and two wives. First Leah who had Reuben who was legal heir. Second, Rachel, who was wife of
his love and so Jacob gave heirship to Joseph, born of Rachel.
When a man is dying, firstborn son stands by and closes his eyes when he dies. In verse 4, God is
respecting Jacob's love for Joseph saying that he will take the place of legal firstborn Reuben.
Joseph was firstborn of Rachel; Jacob loved Rachel. In end, got Leah—was older than Rachel
(section not clear on Rachel, Leah, Joseph and Reuben).
According to law, Reuben was the firstborn, therefore, he was head of the family. To Jacob, Joseph
was his firstborn, because he was the son of his love. Coat of many colors—erroneous teaching. A white
coat with wide long sleeves — the robe of heir. That's why brothers were jealous, knew Jacob planned to
make Joseph his heir, instead of Reuben.
"Put his hand upon thine eyes." When father is dying, invites all the children; usually puts robe on
firstborn, and the keys of the household on his shoulder; gives with a blessing. He then dies and the
firstborn closes father's eyes. It is the most affectionate service done by the son.
God gave Jacob the desire of his heart. He knew what he wanted. Even when you don't pray.
Delight yourself in the way of God and He shall give you the desires of your heart. What you set your
mind upon, that's what you'll get. As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he. (Hindus believe that if you
don't get desires now, God will bring you back good to have a lot of desires.) God never fails!
Buddha—heretic to Hindus, was a reformer. Don't get involved in desires of this world, cut them
off. No luxury. Then won't have to come back to this world. Buddha said before Christ, what does it
profit you if you loose your soul and gain the whole world. Be content with little things. The more we
have, the more we want. Hindu and Buddha content with a little. Cut the desire out.
Joseph was loved by Jacob because he was firstborn of Rachael whom he loved, he didn't love Leah.
Reuben was firstborn of Leah and by law should have been head of family, should have been given white
coat of heirship. Firstborn stands by death bed of parents and closes the eyes when dead—it's a very
tender thing. Reuben should have done it, but God knew Jacob's heart to have Joseph do it. (Trust in
Lord, not materialism, and He will give thee the desires of your heart. Hindus practice this rap on
reincarnation.) Set your mind—it brings results.
Verse 8 Thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies. This is a figure of speech used before by other
people, besides what John the Baptist wrote. Easterners have the Bible practices as a part of their culture.
They live the way the Bible teaches, yet they are not Christians. One difference we have with the Eastern
people is that their religion is their life. Our culture is dead. The Easterners know much more than we
about the Bible.
It means that if you have taken a king in a war and have him as a prisoner and ask him to lie down
the man who captured him puts his foot on his neck. This signifies that the king is now a complete
subjugated man. There is no way out—absolute subjugation. This man is your slave. As Christians, we
gave ourselves joyously, fully surrendered, to the Lord Jesus Christ. We maintain our freedom of will
and surrender ourselves to the will of the Lord and maintain our own freedom in spirit.
"Hand in the neck of thine enemies." This is an Eastern idiom.
Background: When an enemy is captured in war, then the captor will have his captive lie down on
the ground and he will put his foot on his neck. This means that the captive is completely subjugated to
the captor.
Verses 14 and 15 Ass lying down between the sheepfolds. Issachar was one of Jacob's sons. Jacob
blessed all of his sons, one by one. As he came to Issachar, he was an ass couching (lying) down between
two sheepfolds. The meaning is that: lazy (weak, poor, lame) asses come and lie down in the gate of the
sheepfold. When sheepfold is cleaned in the morning and evening, shepherd throws all the unused, dirty
grass which has not been wanted by the sheep (when sheepfold is cleaned). These donkeys wait for the
grass to be thrown out where it doesn't have to find its own grass. Issachar is really lazy, lying down
between two sheepfolds, making sure he doesn't have to work, even though he was even a strong man;
making sure he gets something to eat. A man who is lazy and wants to live off of other people's labor is
called "an ass lying down between two sheepfolds." (Idiom). Issachar was not weak, blind or lame. He
was just lazy.
Verse 15: Because he was lazy and dependent on somebody else, he reaped the consequences of
his laziness, which means he became a servant to all.
Verse 17 Serpent, adder. Serpent and adder are one in the same here. There are several species of
serpents in the East. The winged serpents (the wings are about an inch long in the eyes).
Horned serpents. Viper without horns. Adder has horns. Horned serpents are called fiery serpents.
The horned serpents on the path, hide in the dust on the road. They bite the heels of a horse; and the bite
is very dangerous. If a man were bitten by the adder, he would live only half an hour. Dan was a
treacherous man.