Verse 9 In this instance he is sitting on a "Gabbathe." It means a seat just in front of a house or a palace.
Verse 11 If a man child comes, they always like to bring him up in the fear of God as a servant. Any
person who is dedicated to God, they don't shave his head. From the time he is small, until he is 12 years
old, he has long hair like a woman. Then when he is dedicated, he gives the glory of his head to the Lord,
and then his ears are marked. They put golden rings in and that means you are earmarked to serve the
Lord. Most Hindus have long hair in India. To grow long hair and keep it is dignified in the East. After
you dedicate yourself to the Lord when you are 12 and get your hair shaved off, you let it grow long
again. 90% of the Hindus in India have long hair. In this verse she means she will dedicate him to the
Lord. Long hair is a sign of a devoted person. When the razor doesn't come on the head, it also means
you don't drink liquor.
Verse 12 "Marked" should be "observed."
Verse 13 He just didn't know what tribe she came from. It is the custom that when a person prays he
prays out loud. When they stand in the temple, they pray aloud. They are taught to say it loud.
Verse 21 "And all his house" includes the servants also. When they go, they lock the house up and
everybody goes. They give the animals to someone else. The slave servants were sent home, but the
blood servants went along.
Verses 21 and 22 Weaned. Elkanah was the husband of Hannah. Hannah prayed to God for a child and
God granted her a child. Elkanah was going to the yearly sacrifice to fulfill a vow. Each year the Hindu's
go to their holy place—city. Each year they take the whole family on this pilgrimage. They camp along
the roadside. They're supposed to be pilgrims and strangers in this world. They're marching onto victory,
glory. On the way there, they're supposed to suffer. They can get a train home if they like. Anna said
she would not go up to the temple until the child was weaned. She said after this, I'll take the child and go
to the temple and there abide forever. How could she do this?
How old was Samuel when he was weaned? To wean is to give up his mother's breast—child does
this 8-9 months after birth. Do you leave the child in the temple to abide there after this? It takes about
five years after weaning for the child to stand by himself.
In the East, to wean is not just to give milk, but to give the milk of the Word. This is why the
children sleep with the mother until she teaches them the milk of the Word.
The mother gives the promise when she is married that she'll teach the child. They don't send her
child to Sunday School. She teaches the children the Word, their religion. "Out of the mouth of babes and
sucklings thou has perfected faith." When the child is able to praise God, then he's weaned. Some take 4
years, others 6.
Samuel was somewhere around 5 to 7 years old. Samuel slept next to Eli in the temple. He was able
to answer the questions. When God spoke to him, he thought it was Eli—he was old enough to know.
Samuel was a Jew.
The boys in the East are brought up by the grandfather after they've been weaned. He's taken to the
temple and dedicated to God. Then his ears are bored—he is earmarked to serve God—he is separate
from the world. Only Hindu's have this culture.
You go and stay with your grandfather until you're 14 to 16, depending on the kind of school your
village has. The grandfather is a family priest—a priest of God. Anybody who didn't have a grandfather
was sent to the temple to live with the priest. The priests give the same teaching as the grandfather gives.
Verse 22 In the East they don't feed the children bottled milk like we do. If the mother doesn't have
enough milk, they get another woman from the same tribe and she feeds him. They believe you must give
mother's milk as long as you can because that will make the children wiser and also stronger. Some of the
boys and girls keep at it until 5 years of age, just occasionally. They are not weaned until they are 3 to 5.
Children who have no grandfathers remain in the temple. The priest teaches them and they sleep there
and they wash the feet of the priest. They learn how to burn incense and help the priest dress and they
wash the priests' robes and clean the temple. Only the sons do this, not the daughters. The grandfathers
bring the boys up. She weaned him at about five and then took him to the temple. As soon as they are
12, they may teach and be like an assistant pastor. In the Christian churches in the East, the young people
sing in the choirs. Some of them wear robes and help the priest into his robing. They help to do other
things also. This way he learns the job from beginning to end. Any boy who is willing to do this work
for the priest and learn these things may go to live in the temple. The Christian Church adopted the same
practice to some extent.
Weaning. Children in the East are weaned usually at about five years old. Two meanings of weaning:
1. When child finishes drinking the mother's milk; and 2. When the child has been taught the milk of the
Word. Both must be accomplished. The child sleeps with the mother and she teaches him to praise God.
The child is presented to God at the temple after the child is weaned. It is the mother's responsibility to
teach the Word to the children. Young Samuel was able to understand God, i.e., he was old enough to go
to Eli in the night—he wasn't a baby.
Verse 8 The dunghill includes not only the dung for the cows, but old rags, food, bread, etc. The
beggars usually go there to pick these up. You only go when you have lost all self-respect and all
humanity about you. It is easy to pick up things that have been discarded that the man God lifts up.
See Mark 9:43-47.
Verse 13 The priests in the East have no bosses or anyone to dictate to them. They dictate to others.
Some of them cook the sacrificial meal in the temple and while it is still hot, they offer it to God.
Offering is a prayer. The sacrificial meal is cooked in a vessel as big as they want. They make a brass
vessel with two handles.
Verses 13 and 14 The priests would take a three-pronged flesh hook (trident) when an offering is
brought to the temple and the priest's servant would reach in with the flesh hook and what he took was
his. He's responsible to God. You don't need an auditor to keep track of how he spends it.
Flesh hook. An instrument of steel is on altar in temple. When meat offering is brought, the priest's
servant uses this three-pronged instrument to dip into the offering and bring up something for the priest.
The priest must live by this first dip.
Today the kings of England are the heads of the church by law. On the English penny, the king holds
in his left hand a trident (a flesh hook with three teeth) just as it was on the left side of the altar. It
signifies that the king has first pick in everything. He can take what he wants first.
When a man is ordained, he is God's man from then on. Must show respect to him. Share with him
of abundance. When a minister visits Eastern home, he is given flowers and fruit in his hand and money
is laid at his feet. (Money was laid at apostle's feet.)
Flesh hook of three teeth. The priests have no slavery and no pay. They may have whatever offering
that is brought before the Lord. The priests take the first portion of it. If money comes up, it is his. He
takes the flesh hook of three teeth in his hand and dips it into the sacrifice (say a lamb) and whatever he
comes up with it, he keeps. The first dip is for the priests. The flesh hook is made of steel about 3' long.
At the end are three teeth. This hangs by the altar.
In England, the kings are priests; defenders of faith. On the coin in the left hand you'll find this
trident, they call it.
This is flesh hook of three teeth—same thing. This means the queen is a priestess, defender of faith.
All the kings are first priests, then kings. The king holds the power as to what the people believe in.
Verse 14 The flesh hook has three prongs because that is God's share. They put it in once and whatever
comes up, belongs to the priests. That is the practice. It is made of steel and about 3' long. It is standing
by the idols.
Verse 18 The priests have a white robe which is worn only when giving sacraments. The priest blesses
wearing the ephod. It is worn only on special occasions. "Being a child over twelve..." it should say, a
young man.
Verse 1 The Word of the Lord is precious = scarce. It is scarce today also, because people teach
religion, not Christianity.
Verse 18 This is what the people say if their house burns down or if they have a dream that their
business is going to fail. The people will say this—they don't grumble.
Verse 5 Rang again should be re-echo.
Verse 8 The people in the East believe that every man is a god.
Verses 8 and 9 Quit ye like men. "Quit" is act, behave. Act like men by believing the Word.
Verse 9 "Quit" should be translated "act."
Verses 12-18 Seat, earth upon his head. Verse 12: Clothes should be mantle. Rending of mantle
represents inward grief or anger. Earth upon head should be "Lord, I feel like being buried alive." It
means that one is willing to die for a cause. It shows determination of the soul of man. Eli's reproof from
God was that he did not correct his sons. Why did he not correct them? Verse 18; thirteen sat upon a seat
by the wayside watching. In front of the palaces and houses are seats on stone about 2' x 4' . People sit
on seat near the gate. Especially kings and rajahs sit on these seats (Gabbatha) in front of palace. Pilate
sat on gabbatha when the crowd was demanding Jesus. It is a place to pass judgments and discuss issues,
even the ones in front of people's houses. To sit on it one must be at least 30 because younger men's
opinions are not counted. Eli sat then because a big uproar was going on and he wanted to know about it.
Eastern people never discuss politics when together. They always discuss religion. That is what Jesus
meant when he said that God was present whenever two or three are gathered together. Younger people
must not sit equal with the old. Men below 30 sit on the ground and listen. Even a man of 55 is superior
to a man of 50.
Verse 4 Plague is a word for many, many diseases. "Plague" means God is sending it and man hasn't
anything to do with it. When God sends the plague, man dies—there is no remedy for it. Most of these
diseases occur among people who are very poor and live in a poor way. So, when a plague comes to a
city and God hears their prayer and removes the plague, they usually give an offering. They usually make
some kind of idol. "Emerods" are a kind of idol made for bigger diseases. But mice and emerods are
idols offered as an offering to God for healing them or keeping the plague away from them. They are
given for two different kinds of plagues. It is three-sided, triangular. This means it is put out for three
different diseases.
Images; emerods. Emerods = hemorrhoids. "Five golden images for emerods." There are lots of
images that are for a memorial, but are not idols. In Eastern streets, sometimes you can see a stone
erected with oil poured over it. It is a memorial of something that happened. It is set up as a witness.
Verse 7 "...for the bread is spent in our vessels..." means it is gone out of our vessels. It is all gone.
They wanted to take a present to the man of God.
Verses 7 and 8 Present. The kings always went to men of God first if they had a problem. If you want
to get blessed from the man of God, you must take an offering, a present to him.
A shekel is 68¢. It doesn't matter how much you take, it's just important that you take something to
the man of God when you go. Must take gifts to 1) man of God, 2) king, 3) family doctor, 4) new or
pregnant mother and 5) sick people. In the East, they open the present and give it. We give it wrapped
up—they open. Everybody brings present to the ruler on his birthday. This is how the monarchs become
Verse 8 They are not talking about the value of the money, but about the spirituality of the money.
Shekels are given only to the temples as an offering not because of the value of it, but because shekels are
ordained of God for an offering to the temple, whereas the Roman coins are for other things. It is not the
material things they want to give to God, but it is something that has to do with spirituality which is given
only to the servants of God or to the temple.
Verse 22 "Stuff" is "flax." It is a stalk of flax somewhere in the field.
Verses 22 and 27 Presents. "Stuff" should be "flax." In verse 27, one never goes empty handed to a
man of God, a king, sick person or pregnant woman.
Verse 27 When a king is crowned all the subjects usually bring gifts. These people refused to honor
him, but he held his peace. It was an insult to him not to have the people bring gifts.
Verse 7 "...and they came out as one man." The meat of oxen is sacrificial meat also. He is saying to
the people that God will destroy the oxen in this fashion. Oxen is the life of the people because most of
the people live by agriculture. They don't care if they say you will be killed, but if oxen will be killed it
means God's curse will be upon them. They were afraid because the oxen were in it.
Oxen. A fear tactic getting people to do something. The people lived by oxen; they were used for
cultivation. If you lose your oxen, you lose everything.
Verse 11 "Morning watch." This is the third watch—2 to 6 a.m. Eastern people believe that you can
pray better at night when they are free of the cares of the day.
Third watch. "Morning watch" = 2 a.m.-6 a.m.
Verse 3 These are the kind of questions they ask before a king of any reputation or a steward when he
leaves his job or his master. The masters especially ask these questions in order to verify their clean
living. "Bribe" should be money received for any great purpose. When you receive ransom money "to
blind mine eyes" means you blind your spiritual part. You become blind spiritually.
Verse 4 "Ought" means "anything."
Verse 17 If the Lord sends rain, there will be no more wheat left.
Words. The words we say are more important than we think (Mark 11:23). They have power behind
them. What is confessed is brought to pass. Therefore, always say good things so that good happens. It
works for anybody, but for Christians it is more real because it has the name of Jesus Christ behind it
(Luke 6:28). Jesus said, "Bless them which curse you." Words bring results. Setting the mind on
something and desiring it with the heart brings results (Philippians 4:8).
Verse 24 Prayer. Among Hindus, there is a certain festival once a year. They stay awake all night
praying to God. The men, women and children all participate. To avoid falling asleep, they tie
themselves to posts and keep saying Rama, Rama, Rama...(Lord, Lord, Lord...). They believe that saying
it even once gives salvation to the speaker. As people follow the Words of God or of the man of God,
best results are brought to pass. When some distressful situation hits a town, the chieftain will call
everyone out to go up on housetops at noon to pray. Shoes are never worn while praying. (God told
Moses to take off his shoes in the presence of the burning bush because it was holy ground.) The rooftops
are blistering hot at noon. See Isaiah 22:1, "Wholly gone up to housetops." The whole town goes up to
the housetops to pray during a crisis. Easterners turn to God rather than to other people.
Verse 20 "A kid." "Bottle" is a skin. Here the bread, wine and kid are being sent as a peace offering, a
gift. If wife goes home for a week to stay with her parents, then the husband will bring a kid to her when
she returns and he will also bring flowers and fruit for every member of the family. The husband is like
God to the wife.
Jesse was the father of David. The "ass being laden" shows that there was plenty to eat. The kid
brings peace and pleases the people. The Eastern custom is to always give the best gift to your wife, then
all different kinds of gifts to the other members of the family. The girls in the family—sisters, cousins,
etc., fall down at the feet of the bridegroom. Then the presence of a giver was in front of the public. Gift
always opened first, then given to the person. As a gift, the kid is given alive. The kids are well cared
for. They also give "cows." Father says very good. They get enough gold and jewelry. This is why when
the husband dies, the women don't get remarried. They exchange the covenant of salt at marriage and do
not break their promises to each other. The man is like "God" to the woman and she takes care of him.
Not just "Dick or Bill." The culture dictated this. A court can never take a woman's jewelry for a debt.
Verse 18 Pledge. Find out how your brethren are in the camp, but first take something to the captain.
Take a pledge. Take something from them as a memory. A memorial—some hairs, fingernails, anything.
A souvenir to show how the person is getting on. Could be a diamond ring. It was a matter of
identification and safety. It's a token of good will, an earnest.
Verse 40 "The shepherd's bag" and the "scrip" are the same thing. It is a bag attached to the belt. In
this bag shepherds keep stones which they use to keep the sheep together. They are smooth because the
shepherd doesn't want to hurt the sheep if they are hit. Every shepherd has these stones, but they don't
necessarily keep five like David did. They get them out of the river because they are smooth.
Verse 43 In the East, no dogs are pets. We do not have them because we think that they are unclean.
They eat food from the tables of other people—the crumbs which are left. They call a person a dog who
does not believe in their religion. The dog is the only animal we beat with a stick. He is not supposed to
be touched because he is unclean. That is why anyone going out to beat someone with a stick, will say,
"Do you think I am a dog?"
People do not go in the house with shoes on. The shoes and sandals and also the dogs, must be kept
outside. Therefore, when you walk inside you wash your feet and walk inside with clean feet. When you
go out, you put the shoes on, but first you wash your feet and step on the carpet. The carpet never gets
dirty because you never walk on it with your shoes. If a man curses a man, that may never happen. But,
if a man curses in the name of God, the people know that will happen. That is why men of God are
respected. If a man of God curses or blesses, it will happen when the man of God says. If the man or
woman is not a man of God, they call upon a god. In the name of so and so, I curse you. That is why
they call upon Jesus. In the name of Jesus when they bless, pray or expect anything.
Those people in the East that worship gods will always use the name of their gods because they
believe as they make a curse in that name, their god will make it good for them. When they want to
destroy a person, they'll use the name of their god. This is to impress you, scare you, make you think that
their god is going to do it.
Dogs are outsiders, live outside, not in house. We are dogs to another nation. Merely means they're
outsiders, is not really an insult. Jews are dogs to Christians.
Barbarian means people who do not speak the same language. People who don't belong to your
religion are called heathens. People use a stick to hit, drive, a dog in the East. Goliath said, "You come
with staves." Only stone people with rocks, stones. When it is blasphemy not to hit dog. Revelation
22:15—dogs who are without (not of Christ's) are dogs (outsiders).
Verse 3 Translation: "Then Jonathan loved David and made a covenant with him." This is a covenant
of giving the clothes you have on your body. That means I made a covenant with you as a token. When a
person makes a covenant, that means he almost gives himself up. In order to show he gives himself up to
be loyal and loving unto death, he gives the robe. Sometimes in the East, they don't give everything they
have, but they give their outer garment. This is a sign of surrender, it is a token, giving something you are
wearing on your body. In this case, Jonathan meant business because he gave everything he had.
Verse 4 "Sword" here is a "dagger." Whenever you read "a sword" in the Bible, it is a dagger. They
still do this today.
Verse 5 "Behaved himself..." means prospered himself.
Verse 10 "Javelin" is a spear.
Verse 11 If a man escapes from another man, the houses and temples are like a place of refuge. They
won't go and kill a man in his home, on the roof or in the temple. They look upon it as a place where God
dwells and so they won't go in the house. Any coward can go and kill a man in his house. But they let
him come out and then they fight him. The police can't even go in the house or temple to get the man.
Verse 24 Naked. This means not fully dressed. Not stark naked. Same as John 21:7.
Verses 21-26 Defilements. Jonathan and David were arranging signals between them whereby David
could escape harm from Jonathan's father. See context, especially chapter 20, for story.
Verse 24, "new moon"—people observed new moons and full moons and they were festival days.
God did not approve of this practice. At the beginning of the new moon there are special dinners and
Verse 26, Saul did not ask about David's empty seat because he assumed that David was not clean.
"Not clean" does not mean physically dirty from not having washed. The word should be "defiled" rather
than "not clean." There are many defilements in the Eastern culture. A person becomes defiled by going
to a funeral (fast all day and do not eat until after bathing in evening), by having the shadow of an
untouchable fall across him. In reference again to funerals, if a person is even close enough to look upon
the dead body, that person is defiled and must bathe. Bathing accommodations are provided at the
funeral. The dead person's house must be thoroughly scrubbed clean and all of his personal articles
disposed of.
Food cannot be prepared in that home for 21 days. Another defilement is a woman's menstrual
period. She cannot eat with others during her menstruation. She eats alone in a room prepared for her.
No children are allowed to touch her. One servant is assigned to care for her. If a man goes near her, he
is defiled. She can touch no holy vessels. Many men are trained to cook food and help their women
during this time. Even the clothes that a menstruating woman wears or sleeps on must be sterilized. At
the end of this time, she bathes and offers her peace offering before the Lord. See Lamentations 1:17,
Zion = Jerusalem. Jerusalem is as a menstruous woman.
Saul thought David was defiled and could not eat. There were only three reasons that he would not
be there: left country, sick, defiled.
Verse 26 If a person attends a funeral, passes a dead body or has gone to a party where they are
mourning the person is considered unclean and defiled. Maybe at the end of the day they will eat or he
may not eat until morning. If the shadow of any untouchable falls on him, he doesn't eat until evening,
and then he bathes first. This is what Saul thought might have happened to David. He thought David
might be defiled and if so, he would not be able to eat at the table with Saul.
Verse 30 If any son is disobedient, the people say this fellow is disgracing his father and mother.
"Betraying his mother's nakedness" means he is disgracing his mother. "Thine own confusion" means
Nakedness is not literal. It means "shame."
Verse 40 Artillery should be "instruments." The usage of "artillery" shows the Western mind in the
translation. The instruments or weapons were bow and arrow.
Verse 3 "What is under thine hand?" should be translated, "What is in thy hand?"
Verses 3-5 Hallowed bread. Verse 3, should read, "Now therefore what is in thine hand? Give me five
loaves of bread in mine hand or whatever there is available." Eastern "loaves" are always pancakeshaped.
Verse 4: common bread—prepared to eat for household use; hallowed bread—hallowed for the
Lord, unleavened.
"Have kept themselves from women"—If they had not defiled themselves by intimacy with women
(even wives), they could eat the hallowed bread. When Easterners take communion, they abstain from
intimacy with women on the previous day.
Verse 5: vessels—containers they bring food in. They are all clean as though they had just been
sanctified today.
Verse 4 "...bread in mine hand...." Hallowed bread is bread that has been dedicated to the Lord. He can
give him the hallowed bread if he is sure the young men have kept themselves from women, for they are
not defiled.
Verse 13 "Changed his behavior" should be "disguised himself." He acted strangely. "Scrabbled"
means "scribbled." The spittle falling upon the beard is a sign the fellow is crazy.
Verse 6 Under a tree, wishing tree. "Under a tree" must be a sacred tree. Oak, palm, heavenly tree and
a kind of orange tree are the sacred trees. This cannot be a palm because it gives off so little shade. One
tree protects and grants your wishes: wishing tree. The tree is supposed to grant you your wish. If you
eat the fruit of the tree, a blessing will come to you. The tree, of course, does not grant the wish, but the
believing of the people demands the results.
"Under a tree." The people lie down sacred trees like:
1. Oak
2. Palm (not much shade)
3. Heavenly tree
4. Orange tree (betrothal of bride and bridegroom)
5. Wishing tree—you get not only protection, but also answers to wishes that are made under the
tree. The fruit of the tree brings a blessing. The tree here is a wishing tree.
Verse 3 "Sheepcotes" means "sheepfolds."
Cover feet. When stoop, robes cover feet as a person goes to bathroom in field.
Verses 3-6 Anointed; robe (cut off the skirt). "Skirt" and "robe" both mean "shawl." The shawl is worn
behind the back and is a flowing garment. To cut off a man's shawl is to say to him that you had the
opportunity to kill him, but did not.
Verse 6: "Anointed of the Lord." Easterners believe that their kings are anointed by God. In
Western world, we would do well to have our ministers who are ordained by God to lead us. When a man
or woman is ordained or anointed of the Lord to preach the Word, that person is God's servant. If
someone touches that person to do him harm, he is fighting against God. One dare not touch God's man
or woman. Even with all of Saul's wickedness, he had been anointed of the Lord. It has nothing to do
with a person's character.
Verse 4 "Skirt" is a mantle. David cut off a little bit of his mantle unnoticed.
Verse 6 The people are afraid to hurt, say anything against, touch or fight an ordained minister. He is
an anointed one of God. All of the people, no matter what religion, have the greatest respect for anyone
who is anointed. Even beggars and drunkers.
Verse 1 Buried their dead in the house? Orientalism. Means in his house plot—family plot, adjacent to home.
Verse 16 Translation: "They were a wall around us" They say that about faithful friends. They
surround me as a wall and nothing can harm me.
Wall. "Wall unto us" should be "wall around us."
Verse 22 "...By the morning light dawns even the dogs that urinate against the wall." (Translation)
Pisseth against the wall. Any dog that urinates against the wall. This does not refer to a man. If a
man should piss against the wall, he would be hung. Only dogs do this. The verse says, "even the dogs
will be destroyed when the city is destroyed."
Pisseth against the wall—two meanings. 1. Dogs (depends on context); and 2. Male child or male.
Here: "I will not spare anybody, not even unto a male child." (13 to 14 years old, not a baby). I will not
spare even a dog.
Verse 7 In the East, the spear is stuck in the ground before the tent of the chieftain so that everybody
will know he is the chief. This is in the desert tribes especially. It is his coat of arms. It means he is ever
ready to defend. That is what Saul meant. "Bolster" means "near at hand."
Spear stuck in the ground at his head. "Bolster" is "head." The man in charge of the army lives in a
tent, in front of which is a spear sticking in the ground. Saul looked just like everyone else, except for the
spear sticking near his head.
Verse 3 All he has to do is take it up and strike.
Will not smite him a second time. Saul was asleep. The spear was by his head. Abishai said he
could smite Saul once and for all to the earth and not need a second. To kill something in the East, only
one slit is allowed. Take life quickly.
Verse 20 You don't hunt a partridge in the mountain, but in the sand. This is another Oriental saying.
Hunt a partridge in the mountain. Partridges are killed immediately and are never afforded second
chances or warnings. Otherwise they will fly away. A partridge (Jeremiah 17:11) sitteth on eggs and
hatcheth them not.
Partridge. Flea means fly. David said, "I am only a flea. Why do you hunt after me as a vulture
hunts after a partridge in a mountain?" The vulture cannot get a partridge in the mountains because the
partridge hides between two rocks. When one hunts = when vulture hunts.
Verse 13 Buried bones under a tree, wishing. Jalthar tree is a sacred tree, a wishing tree. The belief is
that if you eat the fruit of this tree, a blessing will abound on you. Your understanding will increase also.
Spiritual wealth will increase. It (the fruit of this tree) is always found in the courts of the kings in the
East. Knowledge and secrets of God will increase.
"Buried them under a tree." This is a wishing tree—Jalthar tree—this is a Sanskrit word. Often
when there is no Hebrew word or Greek word for the name of a tree, the translators would simply write
When you eat fruit of Jalthar tree, a blessing will abound on you and your understanding will
increase. This fruit is in the king's courts. Bishop thinks this is the tree of knowledge from Genesis record.
People who think they are going to die will sit under the Juniper tree.